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Nikon D40 vs Panasonic GF3

The Nikon D40 and the Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF3 are two digital cameras that were officially introduced, respectively, in November 2006 and June 2011. The D40 is a DSLR, while the GF3 is a mirrorless interchangeable lens camera. The cameras are based on an APS-C (D40) and a Four Thirds (GF3) sensor. The Nikon has a resolution of 6 megapixels, whereas the Panasonic provides 12 MP.

Below is an overview of the main specs of the two cameras as a starting point for the comparison.

Headline Specifications
Nikon D40
versus
Panasonic GF3
Nikon D40 Panasonic GF3
Digital single lens reflex Mirrorless system camera
Nikon F mount lenses Micro Four Thirds lenses
6 MP, APS-C Sensor 12 MP, Four Thirds Sensor
no Video 1080/60i Video
ISO 200-1,600 (200 - 3,200) ISO 160-6,400
Optical viewfinder No viewfinder, LCD framing
2.5 LCD, 230k dots 3.0 LCD, 460k dots
Fixed screen (not touch-sensitive) Fixed touchscreen
2.5 shutter flaps per second 3.2 shutter flaps per second
470 shots per battery charge300 shots per battery charge
124 x 94 x 64 mm, 522 g 108 x 67 x 32 mm, 264 g

Going beyond this snapshot of core features and characteristics, what are the differences between the Nikon D40 and the Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF3? Which one should you buy? Read on to find out how these two cameras compare with respect to their body size, their imaging sensors, their shooting features, their input-output connections, and their reception by expert reviewers.

Body comparison

The side-by-side display below illustrates the physical size and weight of the Nikon D40 and the Panasonic GF3. The two cameras are presented according to their relative size. Three consecutive views from the front, the top, and the rear side are shown. All size dimensions are rounded to the nearest millimeter.

The GF3 can be obtained in five different colors (black, brown, pink, red, white), while the D40 is only available in black.

Size Nikon D40 vs Panasonic GF3
Compare D40 versus GF3 top
Comparison D40 or GF3 rear

If the front view area (width x height) of the cameras is taken as an aggregate measure of their size, the Panasonic GF3 is considerably smaller (38 percent) than the Nikon D40. Moreover, the GF3 is substantially lighter (49 percent) than the D40. In this context, it is worth noting that neither the D40 nor the GF3 are weather-sealed.

The above size and weight comparisons are to some extent incomplete since they do not consider the interchangeable lenses that both of these cameras require. A larger imaging sensor will tend to go along with bigger and heavier lenses, although exceptions exist. You can compare the optics available for the two cameras in the Nikon Lens Catalog (D40) and the Micro Four Thirds Lens Catalog (GF3). Mirrorless cameras, such as the GF3, have moreover the advantage that they can use many lenses from other systems via adapters, as they have a relatively short flange to focal plane distance.

Concerning battery life, the D40 gets 470 shots out of its EN-EL9 battery, while the GF3 can take 300 images on a single charge of its DMW-BLE9 power pack.

The following table provides a synthesis of the main physical specifications of the two cameras and other similar ones. If you would like to visualize and compare a different camera combination, you can navigate to the CAM-parator app and make your selection from a broad list of cameras there.

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Body Specifications
    Camera
Model
Camera
Width
Camera
Height
Camera
Depth
Camera
Weight
Battery
Life
Weather
Sealing
Camera
Launch
Launch
Price (USD)
Street
Price
1.
 
Nikon D40 124 mm 94 mm 64 mm 522 g 470 n Nov 2006 499 i
2.
 
Panasonic GF3 108 mm 67 mm 32 mm 264 g 300 n Jun 2011 549 i
3.
 
Nikon D3400 124 mm 98 mm 76 mm 445 g 1200 n Aug 2016 499 i
4.
 
Nikon D3300 124 mm 98 mm 76 mm 430 g 700 n Jan 2014 499 i
5.
 
Nikon D3200 125 mm 96 mm 77 mm 505 g 540 n Apr 2012 599 i
6.
 
Nikon D3100 124 mm 96 mm 75 mm 505 g 550 n Aug 2010 599 i
7.
 
Nikon D3000 126 mm 97 mm 64 mm 536 g 500 n Jul 2009 599 i
8.
 
Nikon D40X 124 mm 94 mm 64 mm 522 g 520 n Mar 2007 729 i
9.
 
Nikon D80 132 mm 103 mm 77 mm 668 g 600 n Aug 2006 999 i
10.
 
Nikon D50 133 mm 102 mm 76 mm 620 g 400 n Apr 2005 749 i
11.
 
Nikon D70s 140 mm 111 mm 78 mm 679 g 500 n Apr 2005 899 i
12.
 
Panasonic GF5 108 mm 67 mm 37 mm 267 g 360 n Apr 2012 499 i
13.
 
Panasonic LX7 111 mm 68 mm 46 mm 298 g 330 n Jul 2012 499 i
14.
 
Panasonic G10 124 mm 84 mm 74 mm 388 g 380 n Mar 2010 499 i
15.
 
Panasonic G2 124 mm 84 mm 74 mm 428 g 360 n Mar 2010 599 i
16.
 
Panasonic GF2 113 mm 68 mm 33 mm 310 g 300 n Nov 2010 549 i
17.
 
Panasonic L10 135 mm 96 mm 78 mm 556 g 450 n Aug 2007 599 i
Notes: Measurements and pricing do not include easily detachable parts, such as add-on or interchangeable lenses or optional viewfinders.

The price is, of course, an important factor in any camera decision. The listed launch prices provide an indication of the market segment that the manufacturer of the cameras have been targeting. The D40 was somewhat cheaper (by 9 percent) than the GF3 at launch, but both cameras fall into the same price category. Usually, retail prices stay at first close to the launch price, but after several months, discounts become available. Later in the product cycle and, in particular, when the replacement model is about to appear, further discounting and stock clearance sales often push the camera price considerably down. Then, after the new model is out, very good deals can frequently be found on the pre-owned market.

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Sensor comparison

The size of the imaging sensor is a crucial determinant of image quality. A large sensor will tend to have larger individual pixels that provide better low-light sensitivity, wider dynamic range, and richer color-depth than smaller pixel-units in a sensor of the same technological generation. Further, a large sensor camera will give the photographer additional creative options when using shallow depth-of-field to isolate a subject from its background. On the downside, larger sensors tend to be associated with larger, more expensive camera bodies and lenses.

Of the two cameras under consideration, the Nikon D40 features an APS-C sensor and the Panasonic GF3 a Four Thirds sensor. The sensor area in the GF3 is 39 percent smaller. As a result of these sensor size differences, the cameras have a format factor of, respectively, 1.5 and 2.0. The sensor in the D40 has a native 3:2 aspect ratio, while the one in the GF3 offers a 4:3 aspect.

Nikon D40 and Panasonic GF3 sensor measures

Despite having a smaller sensor, the GF3 offers a higher resolution of 12 megapixels, compared with 6 MP of the D40. This megapixels advantage comes at the cost of a higher pixel density and a smaller size of the individual pixel (with a pixel pitch of 4.33μm versus 7.85μm for the D40). However, it should be noted that the GF3 is much more recent (by 4 years and 6 months) than the D40, and its sensor will have benefitted from technological advances during this time that make it possible to gather light more efficiently.

The resolution advantage of the Panasonic GF3 implies greater flexibility for cropping images or the possibility to print larger pictures. The maximum print size of the GF3 for good quality output (200 dots per inch) amounts to 20 x 15 inches or 50.8 x 38.1 cm, for very good quality (250 dpi) 16 x 12 inches or 40.6 x 30.5 cm, and for excellent quality (300 dpi) 13.3 x 10 inches or 33.9 x 25.4 cm. The corresponding values for the Nikon D40 are 15 x 10 inches or 38.2 x 25.4 cm for good quality, 12 x 8 inches or 30.6 x 20.3 cm for very good quality, and 10 x 6.7 inches or 25.5 x 16.9 cm for excellent quality prints.

The Nikon D40 has a native sensitivity range from ISO 200 to ISO 1600, which can be extended to ISO 200-3200. The corresponding ISO settings for the Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF3 are ISO 160 to ISO 6400 (no boost).

D40 versus GF3 MP

Consistent information on actual sensor performance is available from DXO Mark for many cameras. This service is based on lab testing and assigns an overall score to each camera sensor, as well as ratings for dynamic range ("DXO Landscape"), color depth ("DXO Portrait"), and low-light sensitivity ("DXO Sports"). Of the two cameras under review, the D40 has a notably higher overall DXO score than the GF3 (overall score 7 points higher), which gives it an advantage in terms of imaging quality. This advantage is based on 0.4 bits higher color depth, 1 EV in additional dynamic range, and 0.3 stops in additional low light sensitivity. The adjacent table reports on the physical sensor characteristics and the outcomes of the DXO sensor quality tests for a sample of comparator-cameras.

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Sensor Characteristics
    Camera
Model
Sensor
Class
Resolution
(MP)
Horiz.
Pixels
Vert.
Pixels
Video
Format
DXO
Portrait
DXO
Landscape
DXO
Sports
DXO
Overall
1.
 
Nikon D40 APS-C 6.0 3008 2000none21.011.0561 56
2.
 
Panasonic GF3 Four Thirds 12.0 4000 30001080/60i20.610.0458 49
3.
 
Nikon D3400 APS-C 24.0 6000 40001080/60p24.813.91192 86
4.
 
Nikon D3300 APS-C 24.0 6000 40001080/60p24.312.81385 82
5.
 
Nikon D3200 APS-C 24.1 6016 40001080/30p24.113.21131 81
6.
 
Nikon D3100 APS-C 14.2 4608 30721080/24p22.511.3919 67
7.
 
Nikon D3000 APS-C 10.0 3872 2592none22.311.1563 62
8.
 
Nikon D40X APS-C 10.0 3872 2592none22.411.4516 63
9.
 
Nikon D80 APS-C 10.0 3872 2592none22.111.2524 61
10.
 
Nikon D50 APS-C 6.0 3008 2000none20.910.8560 55
11.
 
Nikon D70s APS-C 6.0 3008 2000none20.410.3529 50
12.
 
Panasonic GF5 Four Thirds 12.0 4000 30001080/60i21.411.6618 61
13.
 
Panasonic LX7 1/1.7 10.0 3648 27361080/60p20.711.7147 50
14.
 
Panasonic G10 Four Thirds 12.0 4000 3000720/30p21.210.1411 52
15.
 
Panasonic G2 Four Thirds 12.0 4000 3000720/30p21.210.3493 53
16.
 
Panasonic GF2 Four Thirds 12.0 4000 30001080/60i21.210.3506 54
17.
 
Panasonic L10 Four Thirds 10.0 3648 2736none21.310.8429 55

Many modern cameras cannot only take still pictures, but also record videos. The GF3 indeed provides for movie recording, while the D40 does not. The highest resolution format that the GF3 can use is 1080/60i.

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Feature comparison

Apart from body and sensor, cameras can and do differ across a variety of features. For example, the D40 has an optical viewfinder, which can be very useful when shooting in bright sunlight. In contrast, the GF3 relies on live view and the rear LCD for framing. The table below summarizes some of the other core capabilities of the Nikon D40 and Panasonic GF3 in connection with corresponding information for a sample of similar cameras.

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Core Features
    Camera
Model
Viewfinder
(Type or
000 dots)
Control
Panel
(yes/no)
LCD
Size
(inch)
LCD
Resolution
(000 dots)
LCD
Attach-
ment
Touch
Screen
(yes/no)
Mech
Shutter
Speed
Shutter
Flaps
(1/sec)
Built-in
Flash
(yes/no)
Built-in
Image
Stab
1.
 
Nikon D40optical n 2.5 230 fixed n 1/4000s 2.5 Y n
2.
 
Panasonic GF3none n 3.0 460 fixed Y 1/4000s 3.2 Y n
3.
 
Nikon D3400optical n 3.0 921 fixed n 1/4000s 5.0 Y n
4.
 
Nikon D3300optical n 3.0 921 fixed n 1/4000s 5.0 Y n
5.
 
Nikon D3200optical n 3.0 921 fixed n 1/4000s 4.0 Y n
6.
 
Nikon D3100optical n 3.0 230 fixed n 1/4000s 3.0 Y n
7.
 
Nikon D3000optical n 3.0 230 fixed n 1/4000s 3.0 Y n
8.
 
Nikon D40Xoptical n 2.5 230 fixed n 1/4000s 3.0 Y n
9.
 
Nikon D80optical n 2.5 230 fixed n 1/4000s 3.0 Y n
10.
 
Nikon D50optical n 2.0 130 fixed n 1/4000s 2.5 Y n
11.
 
Nikon D70soptical n 2.0 130 fixed n 1/8000s 3.0 Y n
12.
 
Panasonic GF5none n 3.0 920 fixed Y 1/4000s 4.0 Y n
13.
 
Panasonic LX7optional n 3.0 920 fixed n 1/4000s 11.0 Y Y
14.
 
Panasonic G10202 n 3.0 460 fixed n 1/4000s 2.6 Y n
15.
 
Panasonic G21440 n 3.0 460 swivel Y 1/4000s 2.6 Y n
16.
 
Panasonic GF2optional n 3.0 460 fixed Y 1/4000s 2.6 Y n
17.
 
Panasonic L10optical n 2.5 207 swivel n 1/4000s 3.0 Y n

One differentiating feature between the two cameras concerns the touch sensitivity of the rear screen. The GF3 has a touchscreen, while the D40 has a conventional panel. Touch control can be particularly helpful, for example, for setting the focus point.

The D40 writes its imaging data to SDHC cards, while the GF3 uses SDXC cards.

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Connectivity comparison

For some imaging applications, the extent to which a camera can communicate with its environment can be an important aspect in the camera decision process. The table below provides an overview of the connectivity of the Nikon D40 and Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF3 and, in particular, the interfaces the cameras (and selected comparators) provide for accessory control and data transfer.

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Input-Output Connections
    Camera
Model
Hotshoe
Port
Internal
Microphone
Internal
Speaker
Microphone
Port
Headphone
Port
HDMI
Port
USB
Port
WiFi
Support
NFC
Support
Bluetooth
Support
1.
 
Nikon D40Y-----2.0---
2.
 
Panasonic GF3-stereomono--mini2.0---
3.
 
Nikon D3400Ymonomono--mini2.0--Y
4.
 
Nikon D3300YmonomonoY-mini2.0---
5.
 
Nikon D3200YmonomonoY-mini2.0---
6.
 
Nikon D3100Ymonomono--mini2.0---
7.
 
Nikon D3000Y-----2.0---
8.
 
Nikon D40XY-----2.0---
9.
 
Nikon D80Y-----2.0---
10.
 
Nikon D50Y-----2.0---
11.
 
Nikon D70sY-----2.0---
12.
 
Panasonic GF5-stereomono--mini2.0---
13.
 
Panasonic LX7Ystereomono--mini2.0---
14.
 
Panasonic G10Ymono---mini2.0---
15.
 
Panasonic G2Ystereomono--mini2.0---
16.
 
Panasonic GF2Ystereomono--mini2.0---
17.
 
Panasonic L10Y-----2.0---

It is notable that the D40 has a hotshoe, while the GF3 does not. This socket makes it possible to easily attach optional accessories, such as an external flash gun.

Both the D40 and the GF3 have been discontinued, but can regularly be found used on eBay. The D40 was replaced by the Nikon D40X, while the GF3 was followed by the Panasonic GF5. Further information on the two cameras (e.g. user guides, manuals), as well as related accessories, can be found on the official Nikon and Panasonic websites.

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Review summary

So how do things add up? Is the Nikon D40 better than the Panasonic GF3 or vice versa? A synthesis of the relative strong points of each of the models is listed below.

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Reasons to prefer the Nikon D40:

  • Better image quality: Scores markedly higher (7 points) in the DXO overall assessment.
  • More dynamic range: Captures a larger spectrum of light and dark details (1 EV of extra DR).
  • Easier framing: Has an optical viewfinder for image composition and settings control.
  • Longer lasting: Can take more shots (470 versus 300) on a single battery charge.
  • Better lighting: Features a hotshoe and can thus hold and trigger an external flash gun.
  • More heavily discounted: Has been available for much longer (launched in November 2006).

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Advantages of the Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF3:

  • More detail: Has more megapixels (12 vs 6MP), which boosts linear resolution by 38%.
  • Broader imaging potential: Can capture not only stills but also 1080/60i video.
  • Larger screen: Has a bigger rear LCD (3.0" vs 2.5") for image review and settings control.
  • More detailed LCD: Has a higher resolution rear screen (460k vs 230k dots).
  • Fewer buttons to press: Has a touchscreen to facilitate handling and shooting adjustments.
  • Faster burst: Shoots at higher frequency (3.2 vs 2.5 flaps/sec) to capture the decisive moment.
  • More compact: Is smaller (108x67mm vs 124x94mm) and will fit more readily into a bag.
  • Less heavy: Has a lower weight (by 258g or 49 percent) and is thus easier to take along.
  • More legacy lens friendly: Can use many non-native lenses via adapters.
  • More modern: Reflects 4 years and 6 months of technical progress since the D40 launch.

If the number of relative strengths (bullet points above) is taken as a guide, the GF3 is the clear winner of the contest (10 : 6 points). However, the relevance of individual strengths will vary across photographers, so that you might want to apply your own weighing scheme to the summary points when reflecting and deciding on a new camera. A professional wedding photographer will view the differences between cameras in a way that diverges from the perspective of a travel photog, and a person interested in cityscapes has distinct needs from a macro shooter. Hence, the decision which camera is best and worth buying is often a very personal one.

D40 06:10 GF3

How about other alternatives? Do the specifications of the Nikon D40 and the Panasonic GF3 place the cameras among the top in their class? Find out in the latest Best DSLR Camera and Best Mirrorless Interchangeable Lens Camera listings whether the two cameras rank among the cream of the crop.

In any case, while the comparison of the spec-sheets of cameras can offer a general idea of their imaging potential, it remains incomplete and does no justice, for example, to the way the D40 or the GF3 perform in practice. User reviews that are available, for instance, at amazon can sometimes shed light on these issues, but such feedback is all too often partial, inconsistent, and inaccurate.

Expert reviews

This is why expert reviews are important. The following table reports the overall ratings of the cameras as published by some of the major camera review sites (amateurphotographer [AP], cameralabs [CL], dpreview [DPR], ephotozine [EPZ], photographyblog [PB]). As can be seen, the professional reviewers agree in many cases on the quality of different cameras, but sometimes their assessments diverge, reinforcing the earlier point that a camera decision is often a very personal choice.

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Expert Camera Reviews
     Camera 
 Model 
 AP 
 score 
 CL 
 score 
 DPR 
 score 
 EPZ 
 score 
 PB 
 score 
Camera
Launch
Launch
Price (USD)
Street
Price
1.
 
Nikon D40..81/100+ +o4.5/5 Nov 2006 499 i
2.
 
Panasonic GF33/582/10071/1004.5/54/5 Jun 2011 549 i
3.
 
Nikon D34004/5+76/1004/54.5/5 Aug 2016 499 i
4.
 
Nikon D33003/5+77/1004.5/54.5/5 Jan 2014 499 i
5.
 
Nikon D32005/5+ +73/1004.5/54.5/5 Apr 2012 599 i
6.
 
Nikon D31005/5+ +72/1004.5/54.5/5 Aug 2010 599 i
7.
 
Nikon D3000..+72/1004/54.5/5 Jul 2009 599 i
8.
 
Nikon D40X..79/100+ +4/54/5 Mar 2007 729 i
9.
 
Nikon D80..++ +o4.5/5 Aug 2006 999 i
10.
 
Nikon D50..78/100+ +4/54.5/5 Apr 2005 749 i
11.
 
Nikon D70s........5/5 Apr 2005 899 i
12.
 
Panasonic GF53/5....4.5/54.5/5 Apr 2012 499 i
13.
 
Panasonic LX73/5+ +75/1004/54.5/5 Jul 2012 499 i
14.
 
Panasonic G103/5..70/1004/54/5 Mar 2010 499 i
15.
 
Panasonic G2....72/1004/54.5/5 Mar 2010 599 i
16.
 
Panasonic GF23/582/10070/1004.5/54.5/5 Nov 2010 549 i
17.
 
Panasonic L10..85/100+3.5/54/5 Aug 2007 599 i
Notes: (+ +) highly recommended; (+) recommended; (o) reviewed; (..) not available.

Care should be taken when interpreting the review scores above, though. The assessments were made in relation to similar cameras of the same technological generation. A score, therefore, has to be seen in close connection to the price and market introduction time of the camera, and rating-comparisons among cameras that span long time periods or concern very differently equipped models make little sense. It should also be noted that some of the review sites have over time altered the way they render their verdicts.

Nikon D40:
Check Ebay offers
Panasonic GF3:
Check Ebay offers

Other camera comparisons

Did this review help to inform your camera decision process? In case you would like to check on the differences and similarities of other camera models, just use the search menu below. As an alternative, you can also directly jump to any one of the listed comparisons that were previously generated by the CAM-parator tool.

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    Specifications: Nikon D40 vs Panasonic GF3

    Below is a side-by-side comparison of the specs of the two cameras to facilitate a quick review of their differences and common features.

    Camera Specifications
    Camera Model Nikon D40 Panasonic GF3
    Camera Type Digital single lens reflex Mirrorless system camera
    Camera Lens Nikon F mount lenses Micro Four Thirds lenses
    Launch Date November 2006 June 2011
    Launch Price USD 499 USD 549
    Sensor Specs Nikon D40 Panasonic GF3
    Sensor Technology CCD CMOS
    Sensor Format APS-C Sensor Four Thirds Sensor
    Sensor Size 23.7 x 15.6 mm 17.3 x 13.0 mm
    Sensor Area 369.72 mm2 224.9 mm2
    Sensor Diagonal 28.4 mm 21.6 mm
    Crop Factor 1.5x 2.0x
    Sensor Resolution 6 Megapixels 12 Megapixels
    Image Resolution 3008 x 2000 pixels 4000 x 3000 pixels
    Pixel Pitch 7.85 μm 4.33 μm
    Pixel Density 1.63 MP/cm2 5.34 MP/cm2
    Moiré control Anti-Alias filter Anti-Alias filter
    Movie Capability no Video 1080/60i Video
    ISO Setting 200 - 1,600 ISO 160 - 6,400 ISO
    ISO Boost 200 - 3,200 ISO no Enhancement
    DXO Sensor Quality (score) 56 49
    DXO Color Depth (bits) 21.0 20.6
    DXO Dynamic Range (EV) 11.0 10.0
    DXO Low Light (ISO) 561 458
    Screen Specs Nikon D40 Panasonic GF3
    Viewfinder Type Optical viewfinder no viewfinder
    Viewfinder Field of View 95%
    Viewfinder Magnification 0.53x
    LCD Framing Live View
    Rear LCD Size 2.5inch 3.0inch
    LCD Resolution 230k dots 460k dots
    LCD Attachment Fixed screen Fixed screen
    Touch Input no Touchscreen Touchscreen
    Shooting Specs Nikon D40 Panasonic GF3
    Focus System Phase-detect AF Contrast-detect AF
    Continuous Shooting 2.5 shutter flaps/s 3.2 shutter flaps/s
    Fill Flash Built-in Flash Built-in Flash
    Storage Medium SDHC cards SDXC cards
    Second Storage Option Single card slot Single card slot
    UHS card support no no
    Connectivity Specs Nikon D40 Panasonic GF3
    External Flash Hotshoe no Hotshoe
    USB Connector USB 2.0 USB 2.0
    HDMI Port no HDMI mini HDMI
    Wifi Support no Wifi no Wifi
    Body Specs Nikon D40 Panasonic GF3
    Battery Type EN-EL9 DMW-BLE9
    Battery Life (CIPA)470 shots per charge300 shots per charge
    Body Dimensions 124 x 94 x 64 mm
    (4.9 x 3.7 x 2.5 in)
    108 x 67 x 32 mm
    (4.3 x 2.6 x 1.3 in)
    Camera Weight 522 g (18.4 oz) 264 g (9.3 oz)

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