Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
The Nikon Coolpix P1000 and the Panasonic Lumix DC-ZS70 (labelled Panasonic TZ90 in some countries) are two digital cameras that were revealed to the public, respectively, in July 2018 and April 2017. Both the P1000 and the ZS70 are fixed lens compact cameras that are equipped with a 1/2.3-inch sensor. The Nikon has a resolution of 15.9 megapixels, whereas the Panasonic provides 20.2 MP. Read on to find out how these two cameras compare with respect to their body size, their sensors, their features, their input-output connections, and their reception by expert reviewers.
|Nikon P1000||Panasonic ZS70|
|Fixed lens compact camera||Fixed lens compact camera|
|24-3000mm f/2.8-8.0||24-720mm f/3.3-6.4|
|15.9 MP, 1/2.3" Sensor||20.2 MP, 1/2.3" Sensor|
|4K/30p Video||4K/30p Video|
|ISO 100-6400||ISO 80-3200 (80-6400)|
|Electronic viewfinder (2359k dots)||Electronic viewfinder (1166k dots)|
|3.2" LCD, 921k dots||3.0" LCD, 1040k dots|
|Swivel screen (not touch-sensitive)||Tilting touchscreen|
|7 shutter flaps per second||10 shutter flaps per second|
|250 shots per battery charge||380 shots per battery charge|
|146 x 119 x 181 mm, 1415 g||112 x 67 x 41 mm, 322 g|
Body comparison: Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
The side-by-side display below illustrates the physical size and weight of the Nikon P1000 and the Panasonic ZS70. The two cameras are presented according to their relative size. Three consecutive perspectives from the front, the top, and the back are available. All width, height and depth measures are rounded to the nearest millimeter. You can also toggle the display to switch to a percentage comparison if you prefer that the measures are being expressed in relative terms (in this case, the camera on the left side – the P1000 – represents the basis for the calculations across all the size and weight measures).
If the front view area (width x height) of the cameras is taken as an aggregate measure of their size, the Panasonic ZS70 is considerably smaller (57 percent) than the Nikon P1000. Moreover, the ZS70 is substantially lighter (77 percent) than the P1000. In this context, it is worth noting that neither the P1000 nor the ZS70 are weather-sealed.
The following table provides a synthesis of the main physical specifications of the two cameras and other similar ones. If you would like to visualize and compare a different camera combination, just use the right or left arrows in the table to switch to the respective camera. Alternatively, you can also navigate to the CAM-parator app and make your selection from the full list of cameras there.
|Nikon P1000»||5.7 in||4.7 in||7.1 in||49.9 oz||250||n||Jul 2018||999||Nikon P1000|
|Panasonic ZS70«||4.4 in||2.6 in||1.6 in||11.4 oz||380||n||Apr 2017||449||Panasonic ZS70|
|Canon SX730« »||4.3 in||2.5 in||1.6 in||10.6 oz||250||n||Apr 2017||399||-||Canon SX730|
|Kodak AZ901« »||5.5 in||4.1 in||4.7 in||27.4 oz||400||n||Jan 2016||499||Kodak AZ901|
|Leica D-LUX 7« »||4.5 in||2.6 in||2.6 in||13.8 oz||300||n||Nov 2018||1,195||Leica D-LUX 7|
|Leica V-LUX 2« »||4.9 in||3.1 in||3.7 in||18.3 oz||410||n||Sep 2010||849||-||Leica V-LUX 2|
|Nikon B600« »||4.8 in||3.2 in||3.9 in||17.6 oz||280||n||Jan 2019||349||Nikon B600|
|Nikon A1000« »||4.5 in||2.8 in||1.6 in||11.6 oz||250||n||Jan 2019||429||Nikon A1000|
|Nikon W300« »||4.4 in||2.6 in||1.1 in||8.1 oz||280||Y||May 2017||389||Nikon W300|
|Nikon P900« »||5.5 in||4.1 in||5.4 in||31.7 oz||360||n||Mar 2015||599||-||Nikon P900|
|Panasonic LX100 II« »||4.5 in||2.6 in||2.6 in||13.8 oz||300||n||Aug 2018||999||Panasonic LX100 II|
|Panasonic TS7« »||4.6 in||3.0 in||1.5 in||11.3 oz||300||Y||May 2018||449||Panasonic TS7|
|Panasonic FZ150« »||4.9 in||3.2 in||3.6 in||18.6 oz||410||n||Aug 2011||499||-||Panasonic FZ150|
|Panasonic LX5« »||4.3 in||2.6 in||1.7 in||9.6 oz||400||n||Jul 2010||499||-||Panasonic LX5|
|Sony HX99« »||4.0 in||2.3 in||1.4 in||8.5 oz||370||n||Aug 2018||449||Sony HX99|
|Sony HX95« »||4.0 in||2.3 in||1.4 in||8.5 oz||370||n||Aug 2018||429||Sony HX95|
|Sony WX800« »||4.0 in||2.3 in||1.4 in||8.2 oz||370||n||Oct 2018||399||Sony WX800|
The price is, of course, an important factor in any camera decision. The listed launch prices provide an indication of the market segment that the manufacturer of the cameras have been targeting. The ZS70 was launched at a markedly lower price (by 55 percent) than the P1000, which puts it into a different market segment. Usually, retail prices stay at first close to the launch price, but after several months, discounts become available. Later in the product cycle and, in particular, when the replacement model is about to appear, further discounting and stock clearance sales often push the camera price considerably down. Then, after the new model is out, very good deals can frequently be found on the pre-owned market.
Sensor comparison: Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
The size of the sensor inside a digital camera is one of the key determinants of image quality. A large sensor will generally have larger individual pixels that offer better low-light sensitivity, provide wider dynamic range, and have richer color-depth than smaller pixels in a sensor of the same technological generation. Moreover, a large sensor camera will give the photographer more control over depth-of-field in the image and, thus, the ability to better isolate a subject from the background. On the downside, larger sensors tend to be more expensive and lead to bigger and heavier cameras and lenses.
Both cameras under consideration feature a 1/2.3-inch sensor and have a format factor (sometimes also referred to as "crop factor") of 5.6. Within the spectrum of camera sensors, this places the review cameras among the smaller-sensor digicams that favor affordability and compact design. Both cameras feature a native aspect ratio (sensor width to sensor height) of 4:3.
Technology-wise, both cameras are equipped with BSI-CMOS (Backside Illuminated Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor) sensors.
While the two cameras under review share the same sensor size, the ZS70 offers a higher resolution of 20.2 megapixels, compared with 15.9 MP of the P1000. This megapixels advantage translates into a 13 percent gain in linear resolution. On the other hand, these sensor specs imply that the ZS70 has a higher pixel density and a smaller size of the individual pixel (with a pixel pitch of 1.18μm versus 1.33μm for the P1000). Moreover, it should be noted, that the P1000 is a somewhat more recent model (by 1 year and 2 months) than the ZS70, and its sensor might have benefitted from technological advances during this time that further enhance the light gathering capacity of individual pixels. Coming back to sensor resolution, it should be mentioned that neither of the two cameras has an anti-alias filter installed, so they are able to capture all the detail the sensor resolves.
The Nikon Coolpix P1000 has a native sensitivity range from ISO 100 to ISO 6400 The corresponding ISO settings for the Panasonic Lumix DC-ZS70 are ISO 80 to ISO 3200, with the possibility to increase the ISO range to 80-6400..
For many cameras, data on sensor performance has been reported by DXO Mark. This service is based on lab testing and assigns an overall score to each camera sensor, as well as ratings for dynamic range ("DXO Landscape"), color depth ("DXO Portrait"), and low-light sensitivity ("DXO Sports"). The following table provides an overview of the physical sensor characteristics, as well as the sensor quality measurements for a selection of comparators.
|Nikon P1000»||1/2.3||15.9||4608||3456||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Nikon P1000|
|Panasonic ZS70«||1/2.3||20.2||5184||3888||4K/30p||19.1||10.6||106||36||Panasonic ZS70|
|Canon SX730« »||1/2.3||20.2||5184||3888||1080/60p||-||-||-||-||Canon SX730|
|Kodak AZ901« »||1/2.3||20.2||5184||3888||1080/30p||-||-||-||-||Kodak AZ901|
|Leica D-LUX 7« »||Four Thirds||16.8||4736||3552||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Leica D-LUX 7|
|Leica V-LUX 2« »||1/2.3||14.0||4320||3240||1080/60i||-||-||-||-||Leica V-LUX 2|
|Nikon B600« »||1/2.3||15.9||4608||3456||1080/30p||-||-||-||-||Nikon B600|
|Nikon A1000« »||1/2.3||15.9||4608||3456||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Nikon A1000|
|Nikon W300« »||1/2.3||15.9||4608||3456||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Nikon W300|
|Nikon P900« »||1/2.3||15.9||4608||3456||1080/60p||-||-||-||-||Nikon P900|
|Panasonic LX100 II« »||Four Thirds||16.8||4736||3552||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Panasonic LX100 II|
|Panasonic TS7« »||1/2.3||20.2||5184||3888||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Panasonic TS7|
|Panasonic FZ150« »||1/2.3||12.0||4000||3000||1080/60p||19.4||10.9||132||40||Panasonic FZ150|
|Panasonic LX5« »||1/1.7||10.0||3648||2736||720/60p||19.6||10.8||132||41||Panasonic LX5|
|Sony HX99« »||1/2.3||18.0||4896||3672||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Sony HX99|
|Sony HX95« »||1/2.3||18.0||4896||3672||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Sony HX95|
|Sony WX800« »||1/2.3||18.0||4896||3672||4K/30p||-||-||-||-||Sony WX800|
Many modern cameras cannot only take still pictures, but also record videos. Both cameras under consideration are equipped with sensors that have a sufficiently high read-out speed for moving images, and both provide the same movie specifications (4K/30p).
Feature comparison: Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
Apart from body and sensor, cameras can and do differ across a range of features. The two cameras under consideration are similar with respect to both having an electronic viewfinder. However, the one in the P1000 offers a substantially higher resolution than the one in the ZS70 (2359k vs 1166k dots). The following table reports on some other key feature differences and similarities of the Nikon P1000, the Panasonic ZS70, and comparable cameras.
|Nikon P1000»||2359||n||3.2||921||swivel||n||4000||7.0||Y||Y||Nikon P1000|
|Panasonic ZS70«||1166||n||3.0||1040||tilting||Y||2000||10.0||Y||Y||Panasonic ZS70|
|Canon SX730« »||-||n||3.0||922||tilting||n||3200||5.9||Y||Y||Canon SX730|
|Kodak AZ901« »||202||n||3.0||920||swivel||n||2000||5.0||Y||Y||Kodak AZ901|
|Leica D-LUX 7« »||2764||n||3.0||1240||fixed||Y||4000||11.0||n||Y||Leica D-LUX 7|
|Leica V-LUX 2« »||202||n||3.0||460||swivel||n||2000||11.0||Y||Y||Leica V-LUX 2|
|Nikon B600« »||-||n||3.0||921||fixed||n||4000||7.4||Y||Y||Nikon B600|
|Nikon A1000« »||1166||n||3.0||1036||tilting||Y||4000||7.0||Y||Y||Nikon A1000|
|Nikon W300« »||-||n||3.0||921||fixed||n||4000||7.0||Y||Y||Nikon W300|
|Nikon P900« »||921||n||3.0||921||swivel||n||4000||7.0||Y||Y||Nikon P900|
|Panasonic LX100 II« »||2764||n||3.0||1240||fixed||Y||4000||11.0||n||Y||Panasonic LX100 II|
|Panasonic TS7« »||1170||n||3.0||1040||fixed||n||1300||10.0||Y||Y||Panasonic TS7|
|Panasonic FZ150« »||202||n||3.0||460||swivel||n||2000||12.0||Y||Y||Panasonic FZ150|
|Panasonic LX5« »||-||n||3.0||460||fixed||n||4000||2.5||Y||Y||Panasonic LX5|
|Sony HX99« »||638||n||3.0||922||tilting||Y||2000||10.0||Y||Y||Sony HX99|
|Sony HX95« »||638||n||3.0||922||tilting||n||2000||10.0||Y||Y||Sony HX95|
|Sony WX800« »||-||n||3.0||922||tilting||Y||2000||10.0||Y||Y||Sony WX800|
One differentiating feature between the two cameras concerns the touch sensitivity of the rear screen. The ZS70 has a touchscreen, while the P1000 has a conventional panel. Touch control can be particularly helpful, for example, for setting the focus point.Both cameras have an articulated rear screen that can be turned to be front-facing. This feature will be particularly appreciated by vloggers and photographers who are interested in taking selfies.
The reported shutter speed and shutter burst refer to the use of the mechanical shutter. In addition, the ZS70 features an electronic shutter, which makes completely silent shooting possible. However, this mode is less suitable for photographing moving objects (risk of rolling shutter) or shooting under artificial light sources (risk of flickering).
Both the P1000 and the ZS70 have zoom lenses built in. The P1000 has a 24-3000mm f/2.8-8.0 optic and the ZS70 offers a 24-720mm f/3.3-6.4 (focal lengths in full frame equivalent terms). Hence, the Nikon and Panasonic provide the same view at the wide-angle end, but the Panasonic has less tele-photo reach at the long end. The P1000 offers the faster maximum aperture.
Concerning the storage of imaging data, both the P1000 and the ZS70 write their files to SDXC cards.
Connectivity comparison: Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
For some imaging applications, the extent to which a camera can communicate with its environment can be an important aspect in the camera decision process. The table below provides an overview of the connectivity of the Nikon Coolpix P1000 and Panasonic Lumix DC-ZS70 and, in particular, the interfaces the cameras (and selected comparators) provide for accessory control and data transfer.
|Nikon P1000»||Y||stereo||mono||Y||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||Y||Nikon P1000|
|Panasonic ZS70«||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||-||Panasonic ZS70|
|Canon SX730« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||Y||Y||Canon SX730|
|Kodak AZ901« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||-||Kodak AZ901|
|Leica D-LUX 7« »||Y||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||Y||Leica D-LUX 7|
|Leica V-LUX 2« »||Y||stereo||mono||-||-||mini||2.0||-||-||-||Leica V-LUX 2|
|Nikon B600« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||Y||Nikon B600|
|Nikon A1000« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||Y||Nikon A1000|
|Nikon W300« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||Y||Nikon W300|
|Nikon P900« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||Y||-||Nikon P900|
|Panasonic LX100 II« »||Y||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||Y||Panasonic LX100 II|
|Panasonic TS7« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||-||-||Panasonic TS7|
|Panasonic FZ150« »||Y||stereo||-||-||-||mini||2.0||-||-||-||Panasonic FZ150|
|Panasonic LX5« »||Y||mono||mono||-||-||mini||2.0||-||-||-||Panasonic LX5|
|Sony HX99« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||Y||-||Sony HX99|
|Sony HX95« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||Y||-||Sony HX95|
|Sony WX800« »||-||stereo||mono||-||-||micro||2.0||Y||Y||-||Sony WX800|
It is notable that the P1000 has a hotshoe, while the ZS70 does not. This socket makes it possible to easily attach optional accessories, such as an external flash gun.
Both the P1000 and the ZS70 are recent models that feature in their makers' current product line-up. The ZS70 replaced the earlier Panasonic ZS60, while the P1000 followed on from the Nikon P900.
Review summary: Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
So what conclusions can be drawn? Is there a clear favorite between the Nikon P1000 and the Panasonic ZS70? The listing below highlights the relative strengths of the two models.
Arguments in favor of the Nikon Coolpix P1000:
- Better sound: Can connect to an external microphone for higher quality sound recording.
- More detailed viewfinder: Has higher resolution electronic viewfinder (2359k vs 1166k dots).
- Larger screen: Has a bigger rear LCD (3.2" vs 3.0") for image review and settings control.
- More flexible LCD: Has swivel screen for odd-angle shots in portrait or landscape orientation.
- Faster shutter: Has higher mechanical shutter speed (4000/sec vs 2000/sec) to freeze action.
- Better light gathering: Has a lens with a wider maximum aperture (f/2.8 vs f/3.3).
- More tele-reach: Has a longer tele-lens for perspective compression and subject magnification.
- Better lighting: Features a hotshoe and can thus hold and trigger an external flash gun.
- Easier wireless transfer: Supports Bluetooth for image sharing without cables.
- More modern: Is somewhat more recent (announced 1 year and 2 months after the ZS70).
Reasons to prefer the Panasonic Lumix DC-ZS70:
- More detail: Has more megapixels (20.2 vs 15.9MP), which boosts linear resolution by 13%.
- More detailed LCD: Has a higher resolution rear screen (1040k vs 921k dots).
- Fewer buttons to press: Has a touchscreen to facilitate handling and shooting adjustments.
- Faster burst: Shoots at higher frequency (10 vs 7 flaps/sec) to capture the decisive moment.
- Less disturbing: Has an electronic shutter option for completely silent shooting.
- More compact: Is smaller (112x67mm vs 146x119mm) and will fit more readily into a bag.
- Less heavy: Has a lower weight (by 1093g or 77 percent) and is thus easier to take along.
- Longer lasting: Gets more shots (380 versus 250) out of a single battery charge.
- More affordable: Was introduced into a lower priced category (55 percent cheaper at launch).
- More heavily discounted: Has been on the market for longer (launched in April 2017).
If the count of relative strengths (bullet points above) is taken as a measure, the match-up finishes in a tie (10 points each). However, the relevance of individual strengths will vary across photographers, so that you might want to apply your own weighing scheme to the summary points when reflecting and deciding on a new camera.
In any case, while the specs-based evaluation of cameras is instructive in revealing their potential as photographic tools, it says nothing about, for example, the handling, responsiveness, and overall imaging quality of the P1000 and the ZS70 in practical situations. User reviews that are available, for instance, at amazon can sometimes shed light on these issues, but such feedback is all too often partial, inconsistent, and inaccurate.
Expert reviews: Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
This is why hands-on reviews by experts are important. The adjacent table relays the overall verdicts of several of the most popular camera review sites (cameralabs, dpreview, ephotozine, imaging-resource, photographyblog). The detailed reviews can be accessed by clicking on the site logo in the table header.
|Nikon P1000»||Rec||73/100||3.5/5||-||3.5/5||Jul 2018||999||Nikon P1000|
|Panasonic ZS70«||HiRec||-||4/5||-||4/5||Apr 2017||449||Panasonic ZS70|
|Canon SX730« »||Rec||-||4/5||-||4/5||Apr 2017||399||-||Canon SX730|
|Kodak AZ901« »||-||-||3.5/5||-||3/5||Jan 2016||499||Kodak AZ901|
|Leica D-LUX 7« »||-||-||-||-||4.5/5||Nov 2018||1,195||Leica D-LUX 7|
|Leica V-LUX 2« »||-||-||-||-||-||Sep 2010||849||-||Leica V-LUX 2|
|Nikon B600« »||-||-||-||-||-||Jan 2019||349||Nikon B600|
|Nikon A1000« »||-||-||-||-||-||Jan 2019||429||Nikon A1000|
|Nikon W300« »||Rec||-||4/5||-||4/5||May 2017||389||Nikon W300|
|Nikon P900« »||-||77/100||4/5||4.5/5||4/5||Mar 2015||599||-||Nikon P900|
|Panasonic LX100 II« »||Rec||82/100||4.5/5||-||4.5/5||Aug 2018||999||Panasonic LX100 II|
|Panasonic TS7« »||Rec||-||-||-||3.5/5||May 2018||449||Panasonic TS7|
|Panasonic FZ150« »||HiRec||76/100||4/5||5/5||4.5/5||Aug 2011||499||-||Panasonic FZ150|
|Panasonic LX5« »||Rec||73/100||4.5/5||5/5||4.5/5||Jul 2010||499||-||Panasonic LX5|
|Sony HX99« »||-||-||-||-||4.5/5||Aug 2018||449||Sony HX99|
|Sony HX95« »||-||-||-||-||-||Aug 2018||429||Sony HX95|
|Sony WX800« »||-||-||-||-||-||Oct 2018||399||Sony WX800|
The review scores listed above should be treated with care, though. The ratings are only valid when referring to cameras in the same category and of the same age. Thus, a score needs to be put into the context of the launch date and the launch price of the camera, and comparing ratings of very distinct cameras or ones that are far apart in terms of their release date have little meaning. It should also be noted that some of the review sites have over time altered the way they render their verdicts.
Other camera comparisons
Did this review help to inform your camera decision process? In case you would like to check on the differences and similarities of other camera models, just use the search menu below. An an alternative, you can also directly jump to any one of the listed comparisons that were previously generated by the CAM-parator tool.
- Canon 1300D vs Contax N Digital
- Canon 750D vs Canon T6i
- Canon G7 X vs Panasonic GX80
- Canon M50 vs Nikon Df
- Canon R vs Canon M3
- Leica M8 vs Olympus E-M1 II
- Nikon D7500 vs Nikon D7100
- Nikon D7500 vs Olympus E-M5 II
- Nikon D800 vs Pentax KP
- Nikon Df vs Panasonic G9
- Panasonic G5 vs Sony A7S II
- Sony RX100 vs Nikon D750
Specifications: Nikon P1000 vs Panasonic ZS70
|Camera Model||Nikon P1000||Panasonic ZS70|
|Camera Type||Fixed lens compact camera||Fixed lens compact camera|
|Camera Lens||24-3000mm f/2.8-8.0||24-720mm f/3.3-6.4|
|Launch Date||July 2018||April 2017|
|Launch Price||USD 999||USD 449|
|Sensor Format||1/2.3" Sensor||1/2.3" Sensor|
|Sensor Size||6.17 x 4.55 mm||6.17 x 4.55 mm|
|Sensor Area||28.0735 mm2||28.0735 mm2|
|Sensor Diagonal||7.7 mm||7.7 mm|
|Sensor Resolution||15.9 Megapixels||20.2 Megapixels|
|Image Resolution||4608 x 3456 pixels||5184 x 3888 pixels|
|Pixel Pitch||1.33 μm||1.18 μm|
|Pixel Density||56.73 MP/cm2||71.80 MP/cm2|
|Movie Capability||4K/30p Video||4K/30p Video|
|ISO Setting||100-6400 ISO||80-3200 ISO|
|ISO Boost||no Enhancement||80-6400 ISO|
|Viewfinder Type||Electronic viewfinder||Electronic viewfinder|
|Viewfinder Resolution||2359k dots||1166k dots|
|Rear LCD Size||3.2 inch||3.0 inch|
|LCD Resolution||921k dots||1040k dots|
|LCD Attachment||Swivel screen||Tilting screen|
|Touch Input||no Touchscreen||Touchscreen|
|Maximum Shutter Speed||1/4000s||1/2000s|
|Continuous Shooting||7 shutter flaps/s||10 shutter flaps/s|
|Silent Shooting||no E-Shutter||Electronic Shutter|
|Fill Flash||Build-in Flash||Build-in Flash|
|Storage Medium||SDXC cards||SDXC cards|
|USB Connector||USB 2.0||USB 2.0|
|HDMI Port||micro HDMI||micro HDMI|
|Microphone Port||External MIC port||no MIC socket|
|Wifi Support||Wifi built-in||Wifi built-in|
|Bluetooth Support||Bluetooth built-in||no Bluetooth|
|Battery Type||EN-EL20a power pack||DMW-BLG10 power pack|
|Battery Life (CIPA)||250 shots per charge||380 shots per charge|
146 x 119 x 181 mm
(5.7 x 4.7 x 7.1 in)
112 x 67 x 41 mm
(4.4 x 2.6 x 1.6 in)
|Camera Weight||1415 g (49.9 oz)||322 g (11.4 oz)|
Did you notice an error on this page? If so, please get in touch, so that we can correct the information.